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Autologous stem cell transplants
 Moderated by: Prof Trevor Marshall Page:  First Page Previous Page  1  2   
 

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Prof Trevor Marshall
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 Posted: Wed Feb 11th, 2015 04:18

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Yes, I read that Wikipedia description too. But there are also papers describing Schwann cells associated with neurons. For example, "Microwave Mechanisms of the Mammalian Nervous System", Stocklin and Stocklin,  J.  Life  Sci., 1979, talks about "the formation of myelin sheath and the Nodes of Ranvier" on larger neurons."

So this is stored in my memory as "a question mark." Once again we have a great reliance on animal models in Neurology, and also a reliance on Pathology, coupled with a total lack of understanding as to how the signaling actually propagates (except for the above cited authors).

But in any case, it really doesn't hinder understanding of the demyelination mechanisms whichever pathology is present. We are still far from delving into specific pathways :)
 

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 Posted: Wed Feb 11th, 2015 04:32

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Article says:

Department of Neurosurgery and Center for Stem Cell Biology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA

and

Credit: Dr. Denis Soulet/Laval Univ., Quebec


In assisted reproduction or what it's called, surplus embryos are just thrown in the garbage, so more and more countries are allowing them to be used for research. The right way to go if you ask me.



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 Posted: Wed Feb 11th, 2015 09:04

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Where is this country fellow you speak of?

I would like to have a word with him about the embryos.



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Prof Trevor Marshall
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 Posted: Wed Feb 11th, 2015 09:43

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Lorenzo, I want to see the cells in a functioning human brain performing the operations they are reputed to do on Wikipedia. Such as CNS signalling by sending voltages down nerves using 'Calcium Efflux'. There are just too many holes in the whole patchwork of neurological 'knowledge' as far as I can see...

Notice that the IOM yesterday said there was no sign of inflammation in CFS/ME brains, and that is why they scrapped talk of the ME nomenclature. What were they using to look for it? A microscope and scalpel?

..Trevor..

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 Posted: Wed Feb 11th, 2015 10:37

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I have absolutely no idea about the science, I leave that to you:p
I'm in the wishful thinking business.

But it makes sense that one cell attends to several axioms when it's all clustered. It saves space. In the PNS the nerves are stretched out as far as I know and then the clustered approach just doesn't work.



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Prof Trevor Marshall
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 Posted: Wed Feb 11th, 2015 11:36

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Well, is it clustered? I honestly don't know what the neuronal density is in the various regions of the brain. I saw a video of growing mouse neurons once, they didn't seem too clustered to me. Remember a neuron is a fairly large cell, and bigger than the typical Schwann. Maybe there are multiple nuclei with a common cytoplasm. I just don't know. Certainly a macrophage can be polymorphonuclear, so why not a dendrite? And then the differentiation signals might be different at different regions of the cell, not all producing myelin... Hmm...
 

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 Posted: Wed Feb 11th, 2015 13:56

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I did some "research":p

(Mouse brain)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2778101
The cortical volume occupied by cell bodies of neurons and glia cells amounted to 12%, that by blood vessels to 4%. The total average was 9.2 x 10(4) neurons/mm3 and 7.2 x 10(8) synapses/mm3.

So it's pretty spacious.



http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2003/apr/24/physicists-investigate-brain-power
Researchers at the University of Tel-Aviv in Israel have now shown for the first time that neurons can self-organize themselves into electrically active clusters of cells in the laboratory. The clusters are linked together by bundles of axons

Oligodendrocytes are also holding the bundle together.

And from this article
http://www.nih.gov/news/health/aug2011/nichd-10.htm


Then the oligodentrocytes began depositing myelin on electrically active axons, but not on axons that were not electrically active.

Last edited on Wed Feb 11th, 2015 13:57 by lorenzo von matterhorn



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wirion
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 Posted: Wed Feb 11th, 2015 14:22

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@Lorenzo:
For those with brain problems, more important, if you ask me!
Yes, of course. :) That was a little self-centered on my part.

When you say clustered, do you mean spatially distributed (possibly unformly) in 3 dimensions, as opposed to the PNS' linear arrangement of axons, or do you mean clustered as in regions of the brain with a higher density of neurons than others?

Even if you meant the first, yes I guess oligodendrocytes allow for some efficient ("hub and spokes") sharing of resources among their myelinating sites.

@Trevor
Thank you Trevor for sharing your current thinking on the issue. As to fine-grained brain anatomy I am unfortunately in the unknown unknowns camp, as I don't even know enough about it to know what is known and what isn't to "experts". Naïvely I would think that most of this should have been worked out years ago, but your current thinking on capacitive coupling as opposed to the widely accepted "electric cables" model of neuron communication has made me more careful about assuming what is known.

With animal models, shouldn't science at least have stumbled upon the capacitive coupling mechanism by now?

I read the abstract of the Stocklin and Stocklin paper, and it sounds super modern even though it was published more than 35 years ago... fascinating.



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lorenzo von matterhorn
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 Posted: Sun May 24th, 2015 14:37

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I saw this article a while back.

http://www.nhs.uk/news/2015/04April/Pages/Athletes-foot-cream-could-also-treat-multiple-sclerosis.aspx

One of the chemicals they identified as promising in their screen was miconazole, which is the active ingredient in some types of antifungal creams used to treat athlete’s foot. They found that it increased the number of mature myelin-producing cells in the brains of baby mice. It also helped repair damaged myelin in a mouse model of MS, and this made the mice’s symptoms less severe.

Wasn't sure if it was even worth posting, but here it is. Fungus and brain are two things I don't want to hear in the same sentence:s



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 Posted: Mon May 25th, 2015 04:40

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Often the measure of "success" is symptoms go away briefly. So, how long did they test in humans? Or did they only test in petri dishes?

Also, people with long term autoimmune diseases are often the target of many microbes. The fungus are an opportunistic infection that moves in when the body is struggling.



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lorenzo von matterhorn
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 Posted: Tue Jan 26th, 2016 16:21

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New Stem Cell Treatment "Switches Off" Type 1 Diabetes
http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/remarkable-new-method-switches-diabetes-may-lead-future-without-insulin

..in both mice and nonhuman primates. Known as triazole-thiomorpholine dioxide (TMTD), this variant was shown to be able to hide from white blood cells within hyperglycemic mice with a very strong immune system. Following the transplant, these beta cells began to immediately produce insulin, and brought the blood sugar levels down to healthy levels for a remarkable 174 days, a significant length of time considering their lifespan.



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Prof Trevor Marshall
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 Posted: Tue Jan 26th, 2016 18:30

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Well, I would be impressed except that Insulin is not what controls the blood-glucose level in humans. The brain uses Grehlin, and other metabolites, to keep control of BG. So this research will not translate to humans.
 

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 Posted: Tue Jan 26th, 2016 18:55

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But what are the beta cells and insulin good for then? Since we have it, it must serve a purpose. And why can diabetics regulate by taking insulin if it doesn't have any function in BG?



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Prof Trevor Marshall
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 Posted: Wed Jan 27th, 2016 13:41

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Medicine has seized on insulin as being a  means to control diabetes, and failed to study the way the body really works. There has been lengthy discussion on this topic here in the past

for example:
https://www.marshallprotocol.com/view_topic.php?id=15998&forum_id=39

https://www.marshallprotocol.com/view_topic.php?id=16004&forum_id=39

Yes, the microbes do preferentially destroy mast cells, and that does affect body's insulin production. Whether this is an association with Diabetes, or a cause of the disease, is being re-examined.

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 Posted: Thu Mar 10th, 2016 22:19

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A Controversial Stem Cell Treatment Reversed Blindness, but We Don't Know Why

https://www.inverse.com/article/12177-a-controversial-stem-cell-treatment-reversed-blindness-but-we-don-t-know-why

This is basically what you have been talking about, Dr. Marshall.
Instead of going through all the hurdles and bureaucracy in those cases when there's really no need for it, and just go ahead if it makes scientifically sense.

I hope we will see a lot more of this type of direct approach.



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