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New Book - "Metagenomics of the Human Body"
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jcwat101
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Joined: Mon Jul 19th, 2004
Location: Pasadena, USA
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 Posted: Thu Apr 28th, 2011 20:19

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Here's another one on 3 types of gut microbiomes

Joyce

http://bit.ly/erT660

naturenews

Published online 20 April 2011

Nature

doi:10.1038/news.2011.249

Gut study divides people into
three types

Bacterial populations fall into three distinct
classes that could help to personalize
medicine.

Nicola Jones

Just as there are a few major blood types that divide
up the world, so too, a study has found, there are
just three types of gut-microbe populations.

The result could help to pinpoint the causes of
obesity and inflammatory bowel disease, and to
personalize medicine.

"This is important. Say you want to compare ill
people and healthy people; you better match them
properly [by gut type],"

Dusko Ehrlich told Nature at a human microbiome
conference in Vancouver, Canada, in March.

Ehrlich, a senior researcher on the paper published in
Nature today1, is director of the Microbial Genetics
Research Unit at the National Institute for
Agricultural Research in Jouy-en-Josas, France, and
part of a European consortium aiming to unpick links
between gut microbes and disease.

The finding of just three types of gut-microbe
population was an unexpected result that fell out of
the team's early analysis. The types aren't related to
age, gender, nationality or diet.

"What causes it? We don't know," says Ehrlich.

One possible explanation, which the team is testing,
is that a person's gut-microbe make-up is
determined by his or her blood type.

Alternatively, it might be determined by metabolism:
there are three major chemical pathways by which
people get rid of excess hydrogen gas created during
food fermentation in the colon, and the gut type
might be linked to those.

Or, perhaps the first microbes a baby is exposed to
as his or her immune system is developing
determines the type.

A person's gut type might help to determine whether
people can eat all they like and stay slim, whether
they will experience more gut pain than others when
sick and how well they can metabolize a certain
drug.

It's unclear whether a person's gut type might
change over time, either naturally or in response to
something such as a steady diet of probiotic yoghurt.

Little helpers

Researchers have only recently begun to appreciate
the importance of the bacterial cells that grow on
and in our bodies, outnumbering our own cells by
about ten to one.

In rodents, gut microbes are known to influence
weight and immunity against disease (see 'For mice,
swapping fecal bacteria can mean life or death':
http://bit.ly/e2CjTW ).

In the United States, the Human Microbiome Project
is aiming to catalogue all the microbes living in our
nose, mouth, skin, gut, and urinary and genital
tracts; in Europe, the Metagenomics of the Human
Intestinal Tract (MetaHIT) Consortium, the group to
which Erlich belongs, is focusing on the gut.

For this paper, the team used genetic screening to
identify the microbes present in faecal samples from
22 Europeans enrolled in other gut-microbe studies,
and compared the results with samples from 17
people in the United States and Japan.

When they looked to see how similar the samples
were, the researchers found that they clustered
neatly into three groups.

"We were very surprised," says Peer Bork of the
European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg,
Germany, also a senior author on the paper.

Although the number of samples in this paper is
small, Bork says that his team now has results from
more than 400 samples and that the clustering is
still evident.

"I was surprised too. I thought it would be much
more chaotic," says Brett Finlay, a microbiologist at
the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.

Fat or thin

The team has named the clusters after the dominant
genus: Bacteroides, Prevotella and Ruminococcus.

Bacteroides are known to be good at breaking down
carbohydrates, so it is possible that people of this
type might, for example, struggle more with obesity,
says Bork.

Prevotella tend to degrade slimy mucus in the gut,
which could conceivably increase gut pain.

And some Ruminococcus help cells to absorb sugars,
which might contribute to weight gain.

Bork cautions, however, that each person carries a
complex mix of perhaps a few thousand bacterial
species, and too little is known to make sweeping
generalizations about the implications of the
different gut types.

The team has, however, found hints that one
particular disease — Bork won't yet say which one —
is found only in people of one microbial gut type.

The team also has a host of as-yet-unpublished
results that link specific gut-bacteria species to
individual characteristics.

"If I have a stool sample I can tell how old you are,"

says Bork.

"That seems useless because you already know how
old you are, but it's proof of principle that it could
maybe be used for all sorts of other things."

Ehrlich says that his team can diagnose obesity with
an accuracy of 80-85% from half a dozen bacterial
species.

"The real question is: what is the gene set we need
in our guts to be healthy?"

says Finlay. That has yet to be answered.

References

Arumugam, M. et al. Nature Advance online
publication doi:10.1038/nature09944 (2011).




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Sallie Q
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 Posted: Wed Dec 5th, 2012 12:47

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jcwat101 wrote: ............."We were very surprised," says Peer Bork of the
European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg,
Germany, also a senior author on the paper.
............
"If I have a stool sample I can tell how old you are,"

says Bork.

"That seems useless because you already know how
old you are, but it's proof of principle that it could
maybe be used for all sorts of other things."....................................................

The penny just dropped :D

Wouldn't it be interesting for MP research team to be able to initiate a project with Bork's team to analyse a significant number of stage 5 'Alumni' stools separately to test a hypothesis that long term MPers may gain an objective biological age below calendar age



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pgeek
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 Posted: Thu Dec 6th, 2012 06:32

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That's not a penny, that's a pound :P



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leroybrown
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 Posted: Thu Dec 6th, 2012 08:04

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Other than wondering what to put on the customs forms, that sounds like a great idea.

Deb



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And I don't know when - Kate Bush
Aplastic anemia Apr/10, PRCA Jan/09, Agranulocytosis 1991
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Prof Trevor Marshall
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Joined: Fri Jul 9th, 2004
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 Posted: Thu Dec 6th, 2012 08:35

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How about "Hazardous Waste" :) :)

Sallie Q
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 Posted: Thu Dec 6th, 2012 15:46

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or Scraps :P

Happy Christmas, Hanukkah, New Year, Light Festivals, to Everyone
may your guardian angel or guiding star be with you in the coming year.

Here in this battered confraternity
whose borders are alternate herx and gain
Where patient after patient in their trials
abode a year or two, and went their way

with apologies to Omar Khayyam 





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