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Every week brings more bad news for Vitamin D
 Moderated by: Prof Trevor Marshall Page:  First Page Previous Page  ...  14  15  16  17  18  19   
 

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jrfoutin
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 Posted: Tue Aug 21st, 2018 19:20

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Agreed.

Dr Marshall's May 2018 presentation is chock full of clarity.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=60-VAun2R6Q



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Dmitry
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 Posted: Wed Aug 22nd, 2018 17:28

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There are even more studies in the recent years defining extracellular D25 and D1.25 as a powerful anti-inflammatory substances with a negative correlations between TLR2/TLR4 expression, pro-inflammatory cytokines and the levels of D25/D1.25.

As an additional material for:
https://mpkb.org/home/othertreatments/sunshine / Sunlight can be immunosuppressive

Regulation of cytokine responses by seasonality of vitamin D status in healthy individuals
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074219/
Circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 were higher during summer (P < 0·05) and a down-regulation of TLR-4-mediated IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-10 production in summer was observed compared to winter (P < 0·05). The variation in cytokine response upon TLR-2 (Pam3Cys) stimulation was moderate throughout the four seasons. The repressed cytokine production during the summer months could be explained partly by the reduced cell-membrane expression of TLRs. Physiological variation in vitamin D3 status through the four seasons of the year can lead to alteration in the innate immune responses. Elevated vitamin D3 level in vivo is associated with down-regulation of cytokine response through diminished surface expression of pattern recognition receptors.



Variation in serum vitamin D3 levels throughout the four seasons of the year.


Variation in cytokine responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation during the four seasons of the year.


Expression of (a) Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and (b) TLR-4 on the cell membrane of monocytes.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from 15 healthy volunteers during each season.


In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that variations in innate immune response exist throughout the four seasons of the year. In summer, elevated serum vitamin D3 levels are associated with an attenuated cytokine-producing capacity attributable to a suppressed expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4.

TLR2 and TLR4 mediated host immune responses in major infectious diseases: a review
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S141386701500224X
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially the surface ones viz. TLR2 and TLR4 have gained immense importance due to their extreme ability of identifying distinct molecular patterns from invading pathogens. These pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) not only act as innate sensor but also shape and bridge innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, they also play a pivotal role in regulating the balance between Th1 and Th2 type of response essential for the survivability of the host. In this work, major achievements rather findings made on the typical signalling and immunopathological attributes of TLR2 and TLR4 mediated host response against the major infectious diseases have been reviewed. Infectious diseases like tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, malaria, and filariasis are still posing myriad threat to mankind. Furthermore, increasing resistance of the causative organisms against available therapeutics is also an emerging problem. Thus, stimulation of host immune response with TLR2 and TLR4 agonist can be the option of choice to treat such diseases in future.

...

Recognition of the array of pathogens though TLRs:

TLR4: Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, RSV, MMTV, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium falciprum, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania major, Entamoeba histolytica, Filarial nematode, Acanthocheilonema Viteae, Taenia crassiceps

TLR2: Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus B, Staphylococcus aureus, Trepanema maltophilum, Wolbachia, Borrelia burgdorferi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Measles, Herpes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium falciprum, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania donovani, Leishmania major, Leishmana sp., Leishmania mexicana, Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, Taenia solium

Last edited on Wed Aug 22nd, 2018 18:41 by Dmitry



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MP Sep16 25D17 125D21 | Sep17 25D22 125D27 | May18 25D10 125D29 | brain fog, anxiety, fatigue, depression
Sallie Q
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 Posted: Thu Aug 23rd, 2018 00:00

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In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that variations in innate immune response exist throughout the four seasons of the year. In summer, elevated serum vitamin D3 levels are associated with an attenuated cytokine-producing capacity attributable to a suppressed expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4.
Luckily, the immune suppression to be expected in summer would be somewhat offset by reduced exposure to microbial infested air indoors IMHO



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Dmitry
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 Posted: Thu Aug 23rd, 2018 00:14

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As we know, TLR9 is also suppressed(by D3)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20435648

TLR9 and TLR7 are used to recognize bb:

Recognition of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, by TLR7 and TLR9 induces a type I IFN response by human immune cells.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19794067



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MP Sep16 25D17 125D21 | Sep17 25D22 125D27 | May18 25D10 125D29 | brain fog, anxiety, fatigue, depression

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