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Prof Trevor Marshall
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I wanted to pass on a link to an excellent essay on the complexity of obesity -- a topic which Society has precipitately proclaimed as "self-inflicted"

http://www.aeonmagazine.com/being-human/david-berreby-obesity-era/

In particular, note this section (we should chase down some of these studies, IMO):
There is also the possibility that obesity could quite literally be contagious. A virus called Ad-36, known for causing eye and respiratory infections in people, also has the curious property of causing weight gain in chickens, rats, mice and monkeys. Of course, it would be unethical to test for this effect on humans, but it is now known that antibodies to the virus are found in a much higher percentage of obese people than in people of normal weight. A research review by Tomohide Yamada and colleagues at the University of Tokyo in Japan, published last year in the journal PLoS One, found that people who had been infected with Ad-36 had significantly higher BMI than those who hadn’t.

As with viruses, so with bacteria. Experiments by Lee Kaplan and colleagues at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston earlier this year found that bacteria from mice that have lost weight will, when placed in other mice, apparently cause those mice to lose weight, too. And a study in humans by Ruchi Mathur and colleagues at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism earlier this year, found that those who were overweight were more likely than others to have elevated populations of a gut microorganisms called Methanobrevibacter smithii. The researchers speculated that these organisms might in fact be especially good at digesting food, yielding up more nutrients and thus contributing to weight gain.

The researcher who first posited a viral connection in 1992 — he had noticed that the chickens in India that were dead of an adenovirus infection were plump instead of gaunt — was Nikhil Dhurandhar, now a professor at the Pennington Biomedical Research Centre in Louisiana. He has proposed a catchy term for the spread of excess weight via bugs and viruses: ‘infectobesity’.
..Trevor..

GillyB
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Once again, the answer is, it's complicated. Stop trying to make simplistic solutions, like fat shaming.

wrotek
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I was wondering if virus or bacteria can increase appetite ?


Last edited on Thu Aug 22nd, 2013 13:21 by wrotek

Limburg
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Ofcourse I don't know this Wrotek, but I bet they do...........

wrotek
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Yeah well the only way person can obtain mass is to eat more, or travel at very high speed - einstein relativity theory :)

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I hadn't considered bacteria as such as a cause of obesity but it does make sense since we know so little about the subject but the link to chicken rings a loud bell.

So how do you produce a 12 week old oven ready chook on only six weeks?
Everybody knows you don't feed steroids to fatten them up these days, must be magic...:shock::?

Then again there are steroids and there is ergosterol,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergosterol

How simple to add a mushroom product to chicken feed, not a steroid until ingested and then becomes our old nemesis D2 which everyone knows we need so much of...:X

Many people have chicken as a major component of diet reinforced with a "healthy" serve of potatoes full of starch so no wonder that people plump up.

So which is the real culprit? D2 supressing the immune system so bacteria can reproduce and metabolise all that potato starch into fat, or D2 the steroid simply being a steroid and causing weight gain same as medical steroids.

Either way you lose, we cut chicken from our diet along with potato and both Dale and I have lost over 10 kg without effort or other dietery mods so we are both comfortable without looking beyond the surface of the science but it does reinforce what we already know about the problem of steroids.

I am curious about one thing however, why is it unethical to test for a virus?
I would think it is the first thing you would do if a patient asked for help and you were suspicious.
Maybe they just don't want to know in this case.

:dude:



Prof Trevor Marshall
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Why is it inethical to test for a virus?

I once sat through a discussion at a medical conference and listened to one of the foremost physicians in the world explain why it was inethical to tell the parents of a child that the sickness the child had was only likely to get worse. Better to keep hope alive, I guess. After listening to that debate I realized that not all human beings contemplate ethics in the same way....
 

Limburg
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Yeah well the only way person can obtain mass is to eat more, or travel at very high speed - einstein relativity theory :)


Okay, but what increases appetite, need for food, or compulsive eating?

Ofcourse there are many answers, but what's the source, can it be hungry bacteria/virusses?

I'd like a ride in a travelmachine, back to age 17 and then on the MP.......

:cool:

wrotek
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Limburg wrote: Yeah well the only way person can obtain mass is to eat more, or travel at very high speed - einstein relativity theory :)


Okay, but what increases appetite, need for food, or compulsive eating?

Ofcourse there are many answers, but what's the source, can it be hungry bacteria/virusses?

I'd like a ride in a travelmachine, back to age 17 and then on the MP.......

:cool:

In my case coffee (but not caffeine). Dr William Davis says that wheat also = gliadin protein that affects opiate receptors.

Last edited on Fri Aug 23rd, 2013 00:59 by wrotek

GillyB
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The article made the point that all calories are NOT equal.  For the same mass and caloric content, a body may process it differently and it's effect on the body may be different.  So, Wrotek, your comment about mass is what the article is refuting. 

One of the points was that bacteria might alter the way the calories are broken down, making more of the caloric mass available for uptake instead of elimination.

This article points out some factors that might explain why someone like myself, when I was younger, no matter how active I was or how I ate, I was always heavier than my BMI (body mass index) target.

Anyway, it seems to me to be yet another indication that the interactions between humans, the microbiome, and the external environment are super complicated, enough that I'll be long dead before anyone really gets a grip on how it works.

wrotek
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I understand that there may be imbalance in fat and muscles ratio, because of hormonal changes, but mass can have only one source - food.
U can be heavy and muscular, but also you can be heavy and obese (fat)

Last edited on Fri Aug 23rd, 2013 05:56 by wrotek

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But how we process food is important and very different. I only have to look at my own family to see this.

My father has had an amazing appetite his whole life and was/is NOT very physically active and yet he is very slender.

My mother, on the other hand, ate about half what my father did (but same foods in same proportion), was much more physically active, yet carried more weight.

One sister was slender like my father, one was heavier like my mother, and I was as slim as a reed during my healthy years (despite snarfing more food than most men), then became overweight when I became ill.

Some of the weight is attributable to less activity and anti-seizure meds, but not all. My MP doc assures me that the extra weight will sort itself out when I have a fully functioning immune system again.

I think there is a strong case for 'infectobesity'!

wrotek
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On second thought, if eating less could always help, it would be very easy to lose weight. Unless people dont realize how much they are eating, snacks  etc...

Last edited on Fri Aug 23rd, 2013 11:52 by wrotek

Cynthia S
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Look, we all seem to have a set point, whether from bacteria, virus, age, genes.  If we eat less, we become more hungry.

(edit: Hmm, if we didn't have a set point, our weights would be all over the map.  We would be constantly having to watch how much we ate.)

We can either eat enough to no longer be hungry, and we will stay the same weight , or we can continue to eat less in spite of our hunger, and we will just stop burning as many calories, get sluggish, tired, and probably a few other low calorie burn symptoms, and in the end we still do not lose weight, even eating less.

Then we give up, and eat freely again, and because of the intense hunger that does not go away right away, we get fatter.  My own observation is that for every diet I ever went on except low carb, and there were many, I ended up heavier afterward.  The episodes seemed to make my set point higher.  I wonder if the microbiota some how get a boost during a  diet.  Maybe our immune systems suffer during a diet.

Low carb on the other hand seemed to by-pass the set point problem.

Cynthia

Last edited on Fri Aug 23rd, 2013 13:01 by Cynthia S

keithw
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Good point, Cynthia.

There is a world of difference between eating until you are no longer hungry and eating until you are full.
It took me a while to tune down meal sizes as I always overcook and hate wastage but the answer is both simple and convenient.

Cook as normal, serve what you need and freeze the rest to have on toast when you can't be bothered cooking or are short of time.

We bought a chest freezer to store bulk meat but it has a healthy population of home cooked fast food as well now.

:dude:

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wrotek wrote: ............... Unless people dont realize how much they are eating, snacks  etc...

If you are underweight, keep snacks where you watch TV

If you are overweight, do not take any food into your TV room

(if you do not have a TV you are probably streets ahead in the fitness stakes)

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Cynthia, I wonder if the concept of "set point"  is tied in with this new insight of how the body deals with different types of calories and external stressors.  I don't think I've ever ready anything about how set points work.  It seems like a way of describing a phenomena that medical researchers don't understand, so they put a "black box" around it, something goes in and something else comes out, but we don't know what goes on inside that box.

Dieting is an external stressor, and our bodies and their associated microbiota are going to react to them.

Keith, I laughed loud when I read about your leftover strategy, 'cause that's how we've been living for years!  I do a lot of cooking on the weekends, then live on the leftovers during the week to avoid the need to cook after work.  I have also put portions of things in the freezer (I've had the same chest freezer since 1985), but with a pair of large males in the house, stuff just doesn't last very long, especially if it involves meat.

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This is an interesting article. At least some people now are willing to see obesity as a multi-factorial disease. In the last few years I have come to view obesity as a form of malnutrition that results in poor metabolism that then leads to a poorly functioning body, and eventually turns into chronic disease.

I think most people these days, whether obese or not, are literally starving to death due to cellular and enzyme disruptors found in the environment and in the foods and water we drink. The quality of the food available today, and really for the past century for that matter, is at best lacking in good nutritional value (a lack of vitamins and quality forms of minerals) and at worst toxic to the body due to the use of GMO's and chemicals (pesticides, toxic forms of minerals used in fertilizers, etc.) which are inflicted on plants and animals raised for food all in the name of better crop yields.

IMHO, mainstream science researchers and medical practitioners will probably never have a real and meaningful treatment for either obese or malnourished individuals. And even if they could find a way to do this, I do not anticipate any real effort by any government officials to promote the type of complex and multifaceted approach needed to fix this chronic disease epidemic that we are facing today.

However, there are a few individuals who do see the connection between people who are suffering from chronic diseases like obesity and malnourishment. The research of Drs. Paul Eck and Lawrence Wilson, which involves healing mainly by supporting the body nutritionally, is a good case in point. I am not saying their approach is perfect or completely on target and correct, but at least the information they present is a multifaceted approach to supporting the body nutritionally to help thwart chronic disease.

Best regards,
Sunset

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Probably one of the biggest factors with TVs is they are full of ads telling you to eat snack foods and cooking shows describing how to cook sexy foreign meals cheaply, either way we are being pumped full of food info which stimulates the appetite and bingo, instant obesity!:X

My advice, either leave the TV off or watch a docco or comedy and leave the fridge well alone; "unfortunately"? I live with a woman and it's "honey, want half a crunchie" or "do we have any chips in the pantry"? so weight loss around here is slow indeed!

Ah well, at least cutting nightshades has allowed us both to drop 20 lbs each so it can be done but it would be easier without TV ads. maybe I should buy Foxtel and watch "how it's made" and learn how snickers are mass produced!:D

:dude:

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But Keith, if you watched "How it's Made" you could also learn how to build an accordion, or  perhaps some other modern mechanical marvel!

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Sunset, I totally disagree with you.  But let me preface my beliefs with the caveat that my beliefs may not be any more correct than yours.  I believe that a properly functioning body needs very little in the way of nutrition.  Look how young people can eat so badly and they do so well.  The difference is that they have far less CWD bacteria, virus, and fungi infection in their cells.  Their bodies function better than ours.

I am reminded that the early Eskimos ate no carbohydrates, almost no vitamin c. and did not come down with scurvy.  Compare this to the proponents that argue we ate tons of fruit in our early existence, and a normal amount (need) of vit C was many grams.  Changing one's food intake to up the nutritional value or lower the bad stuff has never cured anyone of anything, but may have reduced symptoms.  This from my near life long study of health foods and alternative medicine.  People still die of old age diseases.  In my own case, I personally blame my pursuit of health as a cause of my chronic disease happening sooner and with a vengeance.

Obesity, in my opinion, is just an early symptom of TH1 disease, caused by the infection of the many TH1 organism.  And of course, other TH1 disease symptoms are going to follow by the nature of the continued growth of the organisms.

 Cynthia

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Team,

This is a valuable TED talk that questions the current paradigm that type 2 diabetes is as a result of obesity.  It questions the scientific dogma of simple cause and effect.   Maybe someone could e-mail Peter Attia to point out to him the possibility of a pathogenic cause:

http://www.ted.com/talks/peter_attia_what_if_we_re_wrong_about_diabetes.html

Regards

Teresa Green

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Great talk.

OK, I have sent a message thru his CONTACT link.

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I, too, have been a student of Drs. Paul Eck, Dave Watts, and Larry Wilson. I've been on the supplements suggested by my TMA for about 35 years. I find them a great addition to the MP.

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Hold on to your hats. Here's something making the rounds on the internet now - promoting chlorogenic acid as a weight-loss miracle!

http://greencoffees-fast-fatburn.com/?43/3

Note they emphasize that it is "natural" and "safe"!

I can hardly wait for the combined Vitamin D + Chlorogenic acid pills to appear...
"NEW! Slow-acting, Safe, Natural Suicide Pills!"
Buy the family sized bottle and save...
:shock:

wrotek
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LOL chlorogenic acid promoting weight loss ? Check this out
http://www.firstpost.com/living/drinking-5-cups-of-coffee-everyday-may-lead-to-obesity-study-816431.html

http://digitaljournal.com/article/350865

Dr. Vinson believes that chlorogenic acid inhibits the release of glucose into the blood stream. The cycle is that when glucose enters the human bloodstream after consuming food or beverage, the liver releases insulin. The insulin stores the excess glucose as fat. By slowing down the absorption of glucose in the bloodstream, the chlorogenic acid thus reduces the absorption of fat. And, it is believed to cause the liver to metabolize the fat faster.


Last edited on Tue Oct 29th, 2013 00:44 by wrotek

keithw
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This aired last night over here, http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/76561613

Not sure how long it will be available but you should be able to save the link.

:dude:

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http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/heartofthematter/

"Heart of the Matter Part 2 - Cholesterol Drug War"

:)

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Bacteria and Fat: A 'Perfect Storm' for Inflammation

Oct. 30, 2013 — Making fat cells immortal might seem like a bad idea to most people, but for a team of University of Iowa scientists it was the ideal way to study how the interaction between bacteria and fat cells might contribute to diabetes.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131030185153.htm?

Last edited on Fri Nov 1st, 2013 10:17 by Cairo123

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So, why are these guys not following the thread back to the bacteria, that produce the toxins, that create the inflammation, that leads to diabetes? Do they assume there's no getting rid of the bacteria, so it's better to interrupt the process at some other stage?

It's so frustrating to see so many get so close, yet never quite make the connection.

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Hi All,

Having seen both episodes of the catalyst program It has just confirmed what we all believe about the science world. Its not about better patient outcomes. Its about making $$$$.

For me who has had a very high cholesterol marker since I started the MP confirms my decision to stay off the Statins. Even though I have been pounded by my Doc and Cardiologist to go on the Statins. I can tell you its not been easy not to take the plunge . Only last month my Cardiologist again was pushing for the Statin. I owe Trevor my gratitude as he has also pounded me over the years to leave it alone. :)

It has been good to see a media outlet actual run a storey challenging the science of Statins. We need more of these guys to bring the true science to the public arena. What about the Vit D findings from the Lancet recently. To bad that finding has not found media outlets to let the public know. It couldn't be because there is so much money to be made on Vit D Pill taking :X.

Some of the interviewees correctly have stated that to try and change this culture will take a long time. Have we heard this before...god bless you Trevor your pulse is on the true science data.

Cheers,

Ralph

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Money talks. Follow the money.

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I think it's also the MDs' fault... they are either overworked or lazy or both. They think it's good enough to get their info from drug company reps and when we (patients) try to talk to them about alternatives, they roll their eyes and make patronizing remarks like, "Oh, so you've been visiting Dr Google again?"
argh! :X

Prof Trevor Marshall
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The press in Oz are really giving ABC a hard time!
I looked over both the programs in detail. ABC sought out competent experts, and presented both sides of the argument. Beatrice Golomb, for example, has spent much of her career studying statin side effects. I have personally discussed this issue with her. She knows the topic inside out.

I think the problem was that the science came out as being extremely one-sided. The lack of scientific support for the cholesterol dogma is the problem the cholesterol folk ought to be addressing, not ABC's reporting.

But the Business of Medicine is a really big business, and has performed well in delivering promises, while hiding failures behind a veneer of respectability. Just as the ABC demonstrated, many of the studies performed these days are really not worth the paper they are printed on. Drugs are commonly approved with a 16% improvement in a single biomarker. What use is this measure to a patient threatened by a deadly disease? Why don't they measure the patient's actual response, rather than the easier biomarker? Why are life extensions for cancer patients measured in months, not years? However, one day the public will figure it out. If not on this issue, maybe on the next...

There is another destructive dynamic too. And that is that many physicians feel quite desperate these days, especially when cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancers are involved. They see their patients die. They know they have done all they could to help them, but there really are no fully-effective drugs in their arsenal right now. I have had Doctors say to me "But hang it all - I had to prescribe something for my patient - something which might help."

There are no easy answers. Thirty years ago PhRMA made a pact with the public - "put lots of money into research and when you grow old we will have the drugs ready for your needs." The money has been invested, and has produced essentially no results. We have nothing to cure cancers, nothing to cure CVD, nothing even to deal (long term) with arthritis or fibromyalgia. It is a sad state of affairs, and one which will only begin to resolve itself if more journalists take the initiative to alert the public to the bleak future mankind faces on its current trajectory...

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I am surprised that people on MP are surprised that bacteria are implicated in obesity.

I thought it was a fairly common experience among those on MP to have their weight normalize. Those overweight finding their weights tending more toward weight loss and those underweight tending toward gaining weight.

My weight did not change much but I was fairly normal weight to begin with. My daughter had tried and failed to lose weight previously except on one extreme diet that scared her when she lost so much weight that she gained a fair bit back immediately. But after starting MP, she started getting fevers and chills and arthritic symptoms AND losing weight slowly but surely. I don't know if it was the fevers that were melting off the fat, but I understood from others that it was the die off of bacteria that cause obesity. Once she realized that she COULD lose weight, she started to cooperate with the process -- not with an extreme diet, but just watching what she ate a little better and observing portion size a little more. She lost about 40 or 50 pounds over about 2 - 3 years and kept it off without much difficulty until she was forced to go onto prednisone recently.

The reason I am surprised by the surprise of other MPers is that it was the ONLY health issue my daughter or I had that RESOLVED on the MP. At the time, other people posted similar results, so I thought it was well accepted by MP that MP tended to help resolve weight in the direction of normal, and that it appeared to do so by killing off the bacteria causing obesity.
LR

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Nothing much surprises me about MP these days, when you come to terms with the knowledge that all life is built from bacteria then it follows that we are all a product of the environment.

I wouldn't mind dropping weight a little faster and losing the lovehandles but we live in a society which promotes snacking and there is such a high volume of junk food available that even when you try hard to avoid it you get caught.

With improved recovery comes socialising and that means cuppas and biscuits, before you know it you are dining out with friends and reintroduced to the bacterial mix as well as peer pressure that tells you to eat up.

It seems that in certain ways I am getting my life back but with knowledge gained here I don't want it as it was as I don't want to have to do this again.
Where to go next?:?

BTW, Catalyst this week was about anti aging products which isn't relevant to this topic but those who want to follow the series can see it here: http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/by-date/2013/

:dude:

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Early in the MP, many of us either gain weight, or lose weight. I gained about 25-30 pounds very gradually on the MP, kept it there for a few years, and now, at 5 years, that weight has started to come down.

Someone once referred to fat being part of the immune system. Wish I knew what they meant by that.

Cynthia

Edit:  Almost a year later, hadn't gone down much, and it started to go up again!

Last edited on Sat Nov 29th, 2014 13:02 by Cynthia S

Cairo123
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More Evidence Suggests Type 2 Diabetes Is Inflammatory Disease

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140102123401.htm?

As people's waistlines increase, so does the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Now scientists have a better understanding of exactly what happens in the body that leads up to type 2 diabetes, and what likely causes some of the complications related to the disease. Specifically, scientists from Denmark have found that in mice, macrophages, a specific type of immune cell, invade the diabetic pancreatic tissue during the early stages of the disease. Then, these inflammatory cells produce a large amount of pro-inflammatory proteins, called cytokines, which directly contribute to the elimination of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, resulting in diabetes. This discovery was published in the January 2014 issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology

I wonder if they considered the possibility that the macrophages were going after something such as pathogens.

Last edited on Sat Jan 4th, 2014 08:24 by Cairo123

Prof Trevor Marshall
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I wonder if they considered the possibility that the macrophages were going after something such as pathogens?

No, they don't consider that because their physician-mentors have told them that the body is sterile. If there were any pathogens present, they would obviously have been wiped out by antibiotics :)

Yet the biologists inject Streptozotocin into mice to make them Type 1 diabetics. You can read in this article where Streptozotocin comes from:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streptozotocin

..Trevor..
 

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Soil microbes-- I had long suspected that was the reason if i get a blast of soil or dirt near my face i immediately get a migraine (meaning within an hour or hours) which usually also then turns into a sinus infection and then lung infection . . . .

wrotek
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Dr Trevor Marshall wrote:
No, they don't consider that because their physician-mentors have told them that the body is sterile. If there were any pathogens present, they would obviously have been wiped out by antibiotics :)


They really think that ? I think quite long time ago i heard that human body carries like 1-2 Kilograms of microbiota... 1-3% of body mass.

Last edited on Sun Feb 9th, 2014 05:49 by wrotek

Prof Trevor Marshall
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Ah - but those are friendly microbes :) or so the story goes....

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And they are all in the intestines, or other parts of the body with access to the outside world.

I wonder how much that estimate of weight or % mas would go up if they included all the microbes.  But I guess the fact that the bacteria drop their cell walls, and are on the order of the size of viruses, and viruses are so small they probably don't add much weight, it might not be so impressive.  But those in biofilms might add some.

Cynthia

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Anyone see this?

http://about.abc.net.au/press-releases/statement-from-abc-managing-director-on-catalyst-ruling/

12th May 2014
Statement from ABC Managing Director on Catalyst ruling Today, the ABC’s independent Audience and Consumer Affairs Unit has released its findings regarding a controversial Catalyst program on statins and heart disease.

The detailed investigation was prompted by a number of complaints  into two Catalyst programs, collectively titled Heart Of The Matter, aired in October last year. The report of the investigation is available here.

While acknowledging the importance of public health issues relating to the efficacy of heart disease treatment and the contrasting opinions of highly-qualified scientists, the A&CA has concluded that the second episode breaches ABC standards on impartiality.

Because of the interlocked nature of the two programs, both will be removed from the ABC website.  Information will be added to the program website and the ABC Corrections page to advise of the steps that have been taken.

Additionally, the PM program has added an Editor’s Note to the transcript of its story ‘Backlash against ABC’s Catalyst program questioning heart disease-cholesterol links’, and an appropriate entry has been made on the ABC Corrections page. The note on the Catalyst website will also reinforce the advice made in the second Catalyst program, that viewers should not make any changes to their prescribed regimen of medications without seeking appropriate medical advice.

As the A&CA report shows, this has been a thorough investigation involving complex issues and a wide range of material.

The Catalyst programs were very engaging, attracted large audiences and clearly touched on an issue of importance to many Australians. The link between statins and heart disease is a matter warranting investigation and coverage on our programs. The issue has been extensively covered overseas and continues to be the subject of debate within medical circles. I would like to see our science programs on radio and TV work together to revisit it, whilst taking absolute care to comply with our rigorous editorial policies.

- Mark Scott For more information Media contact:
Nick Leys  03 9626 1417
leys.nick@abc.net.au

Rico
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In Europe, obesity is considered a disability ...

http://news.nationalpost.com/2014/12/19/in-europe-obesity-is-a-disability-court-ruling-forces-companies-to-offer-overweight-staff-lighter-work-loads/

Bane
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How depleting the gut microbiota protects from obesity

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151116120605.htm

The scientists observed that depleting microbiota -- either through antibiotics or in germ-free mice -- stimulated the development of functional beige fat within the white fat, in the same way as when exposed to cold or exercise. But how does this work? It all has to do with a specific cell type, called macrophages. Macrophages are an essential component of the immune system and fulfil various metabolic functions, including tissue remodelling. They express different functional programmes in response to micro-environmental signals, a process called "polarization." Polarized macrophages can be broadly classified in two main groups: M1 and M2, the latter being able to act on the adipose and increase the production of beige fat. When the microbiota is depleted, the number of specific cells, called eosinophils, increases in white fat, which secretes small signalling proteins ("type 2 cytokines") that act on macrophages polarization. Thanks to these proteins, M1 macrophages turn into M2 macrophages, which activate the browning of white fat and reduce obesity.

Bane
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Bane wrote:
How depleting the gut microbiota protects from obesity

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151116120605.htm

The scientists observed that depleting microbiota -- either through antibiotics or in germ-free mice -- stimulated the development of functional beige fat within the white fat, in the same way as when exposed to cold or exercise. But how does this work? It all has to do with a specific cell type, called macrophages. Macrophages are an essential component of the immune system and fulfil various metabolic functions, including tissue remodelling. They express different functional programmes in response to micro-environmental signals, a process called "polarization." Polarized macrophages can be broadly classified in two main groups: M1 and M2, the latter being able to act on the adipose and increase the production of beige fat. When the microbiota is depleted, the number of specific cells, called eosinophils, increases in white fat, which secretes small signalling proteins ("type 2 cytokines") that act on macrophages polarization. Thanks to these proteins, M1 macrophages turn into M2 macrophages, which activate the browning of white fat and reduce obesity.


HOW MICROBES DEFINE, SHAPE — AND MIGHT EVEN HEAL US

http://ideas.ted.com/how-microbes-define-shape-and-might-even-heal-us/

"Until a trip to Peru in 2008, I used to weigh quite a bit more. My wife Amanda and I hiked the Inca Trail and then spent a week in the Amazon, where we both came down with really nasty diarrhea — not what you want when you’re in a tent. We recovered, only to both have it flare up again. To treat it, we both took doses of the same antibiotic. When we got home, we resumed more or less the same diets and exercise patterns we’d had before we left for the trip. However, I lost about eighty pounds in a few months, going from obese to a healthy body weight.

The difference was remarkable. I had to buy new pants, and colleagues took me aside to ask if I had cancer or if there was something else they should know about. In contrast, Amanda lost no weight at all. I believe that the difference was related to a radical change in my microbes: we each responded differently to the same disease and the same course of treatment"

Bane
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Rob Knight: How our microbes make us who we are

https://www.ted.com/talks/rob_knight_how_our_microbes_make_us_who_we_are



Our Microbiome - Health Matters

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yfh6j_HF8NQ



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