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The Marshall Protocol Study Site > PROF. MARSHALL'S PERSPECTIVE > Prof. Marshall's Perspective > Chlorogenic Acid in Coffee is powerful Immune modulator


Chlorogenic Acid in Coffee is powerful Immune modulator
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Dmitry
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 Posted: Mon Aug 17th, 2020 01:22

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Wow, its seems coffee is really an anti infl. powerhouse, holding the crown for polyphenols content too.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095175000425
Coffee is one of the most polyphenol-rich beverages consumed worldwide, containing 214 mg of total polyphenols per 100 ml. In Western diets, it is usually the main source of phenolic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids, especially CGA.

The Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Polyphenols
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266803/

Effect of polyphenols on human Th1 and Th2 cytokine production
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7833634_Effect_of_polyphenols_on_human_Th1_and_Th2_cytokine_production

...

Bonus Data:

Effect of Cocoa Polyphenolic Extract on Macrophage Polarization from Proinflammatory M1 to Anti-Inflammatory M2 State
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/6293740/

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of polyphenols extracted from Antirhea borbonica medicinal plant on adipocytes exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1043661816311136

Tea Polyphenols Reducing Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40242-019-8376-2

Pomegranate peel polyphenols inhibits inflammation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages via the suppression of TLR4/NF-κB pathway activation
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6495109/

Polyphenols are medicine: Is it time to prescribe red wine for our patients?
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2903024/
A typical commercial bottle of red wine contains approximately 1.8 g/L of total polyphenols, while a typical bottle of white wine contains only approximately 0.2 g/L to 0.3 g/L of total polyphenols (18).

Last edited on Mon Aug 17th, 2020 13:23 by Dmitry



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 Posted: Mon Aug 17th, 2020 07:54

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tructural and Biomolecular Analyses of Borrelia burgdorferi BmpD Reveal a Substrate-Binding Protein of an ABC-Type Nucleoside Transporter Family

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7093131/



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Dmitry
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 Posted: Mon Aug 17th, 2020 10:52

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Coffee also contains so called diterpenes(cafestol and kahweol):

Cafestol and Kahweol: A Review on Their Bioactivities and Pharmacological Properties
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6747192/

Cafestol and kahweol are natural diterpenes extracted from coffee beans. In addition to the effect of raising serum lipid, in vitro and in vivo experimental results have revealed that the two diterpenes demonstrate multiple potential pharmacological actions such as anti-inflammation, hepatoprotective, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-osteoclastogenesis activities. The most relevant mechanisms involved are down-regulating inflammation mediators, increasing glutathione (GSH), inducing apoptosis of tumor cells and anti-angiogenesis. Cafestol and kahweol show similar biological activities but not exactly the same, which might due to the presence of one conjugated double bond on the furan ring of the latter.

Cafestol and kahweol are natural diterpenes extracted from coffee beans, which mainly present as fatty esters in unfiltered coffee like Turkish coffee [8]. Unfiltered coffee contains 3–6 mg of these diterpenes per cup [9].

...

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages activate a variety of inflammatory signaling pathways, which can be widely used to evaluate anti-inflammatory effects. NO and PGE2 are important inflammatory modulators produced by LPS-induced macrophages, and the induction of iNOS and COX-2 significantly increase the level of their synthesis. Kim et al. [25] have found that cafestol and kahweol can significantly inhibit PGE2 and NO synthesis in LPS-activated macrophages with a dose-dependent manner.



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 Posted: Mon Aug 17th, 2020 10:59

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Suppressive effects of the kahweol and cafestol[coffee diterpenes] on cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) expression in macrophages
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15225655/

Arthritis develops but fails to resolve during inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2(COX-2) in a murine model of Lyme disease
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18438879/
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that early production of COX-2 products is necessary for resolution of the inflammatory arthritis induced by Borrelia infection, and that COX-2 inhibition may result in prolonged inflammatory states, possibly by inhibition of proresolution eicosanoids.

...

Ketogenic diets attenuate cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase gene expression in multiple sclerosis
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197715/

Last edited on Mon Aug 17th, 2020 12:53 by Dmitry



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 Posted: Mon Aug 17th, 2020 22:01

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Don't forget all the other common foods that inhibit COX-2 such as olive oil!



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 Posted: Mon Aug 17th, 2020 22:48

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Joyful wrote:
Don't forget all the other common foods that inhibit COX-2 such as olive oil!


Olive oil contains polyphenols too...

http://apjcn.nhri.org.tw/SERVER/APJCN/5/2/105.htm ;)

Extra Virgin Olive Oil Polyphenols
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7072812/
... As anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents, EVOO polyphenols were supposed to be also effective in combating COX-2 over-expression (Table 3)...

BTW presenting all those substances as "anticancer agents" seems to be an extremely effective business tactic...

Last edited on Mon Aug 17th, 2020 22:51 by Dmitry



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 Posted: Tue Aug 18th, 2020 17:58

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Nestlé Scientists Make Coffee Polyphenol Metabolism Discovery
https://www.nutritioninsight.com/news/nestl-scientists-make-coffee-polyphenol-metabolism-discovery.html

The objective of the present study was to quantify the amount of caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) equivalents in human blood plasma after coffee consumption, to further understand the bioavailability and absorption of these polyphenols. Healthy adults consumed the equivalent of two cups of soluble coffee (4g of coffee dissolved in 400 mL of water). Blood samples were collected for 12 hours and also at 24 hours after consumption, and then scientists quantified total CA and FA equivalents as well as the major metabolites from the colon.
...
Few other previous studies have investigated the absorption mechanisms of phenolics in coffee. In the literature, these studies reported the detection of certain antioxidants (chlorogenic acids and phenolic acids) 8 hours after coffee consumption, therefore implicating the small intestine in the metabolism and absorption of these molecules. The current Nestlé Research study is the first to evaluate the plasma 12 and 24 hours after coffee consumption. Scientists found that interestingly, key colonic metabolites were detected in subjects 8-12 hours after drinking the coffee. This discovery indicates that the colon and gut microflora, in addition to the small intestine, have a major role in the metabolism and absorption of certain antioxidants in coffee.
...
“Remarkably, our results showed that even after drinking just one cup of coffee, various bioactives are released in the blood up to 12-14 hours afterwards.” Understanding the absorption and utilization of antioxidants from a widely consumed and pleasing beverage, such as coffee, allows Nestlé to continue providing consumers with foods and beverages that bring health and wellness benefits AND which give the full pleasure of consumption.
...
Results showed that the addition of whole milk to coffee did not affect the bioavailability of polyphenols, while the addition of non-dairy creamer delayed the appearance of polyphenol equivalents in the blood, but did not influence the total amount delivered. In conclusion, the availability of polyphenols after coffee consumption was the same for all three coffee types. “Coffee is a significant source of phenolic antioxidants in the diet,” said Mathieu Renouf, Nestlé Research scientist leading the study. “Our study confirms that polyphenols from coffee are as bioavailable in coffee with milk as they are in coffee without milk.” Nestlé scientists will continue to study bioactives in coffee and how to provide them to consumers in an effective and good-tasting way.



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 Posted: Tue Aug 18th, 2020 20:35

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Polyphenols constitute a popular class of anti infl drugs on iHerb:

https://ru.images-iherb.com/nfs/nfs04535/v/4.jpg
https://ru.images-iherb.com/jrw/jrw14028/v/9.jpg

Myrtus Polyphenols, from Antioxidants to Anti-Inflammatory Molecules: Exploring a Network Involving Cytochromes P450 and Vitamin D
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6515124/
Our results showed that Myrtus extracts exert a synergic effect with vitamin D in reducing inflammation and ROS production, protecting cells from oxidative stress damages. Moreover, the extracts modulate CYPs expression, preventing chronic inflammation and suggesting their use in development of new therapeutic formulations.

...

"You'd never know" ... ;-)

Last edited on Tue Aug 18th, 2020 21:02 by Dmitry



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 Posted: Sun Aug 30th, 2020 18:59

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https://www.mdpi.com/2306-5710/5/1/11/pdf-vor
In general, the levels of CGA (including their lactones) in coffee brews as reported in the literature
may vary largely, from 26 mg/100 mL (including studies that only reported concentrations of the three
main CQA isomers) [28,29] to extreme 1141 mg/100 mL (considering unusually concentrated espresso
coffees)
[30,31], but common values, including caffeoylquinic, feruloylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic
compounds, and their main lactones (1,5-caffeoylquinides), range from 50–200 mg/100 mL [32,33].

___

Apparently, a large number of foods contains CGA, for example potatoes:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4926369/table/ijms-17-00835-t001/?report=objectonly
from "Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview"
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4926369/

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264164970_A_Rapid_Method_for_Quantifying_Chlorogenic_Acid_Levels_in_Potato_Samples
Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are found in many plant-derived foodstuffs and are claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health. Potatoes are a major component of the human diet and contain CGA, but little is known about their abundance in these important tubers. We therefore used a rapid, sensitive, and selective method for quantifying CGAs in food using ultra-high performance LC diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). We also established an optimized sample preparation protocol based on ultrafiltration and used these techniques to quantify the CGA contents of selected potato varieties (fresh and after storage) and potato products. The measured CGA concentrations in potato skins were 37–636 mg/100 g dry weight (DW) and were three to four times greater than those in the flesh. Storage reduced the CGA levels in potatoes by up to 81%. The studied potato purees contained 4–11 mg CGA/100 g DW. In addition, the quinic acid contents of potato flesh (11–95 mg/100 g DW) and puree (11–22 mg/100 g DW) were measured using stable isotope dilution analysis.

Last edited on Sun Aug 30th, 2020 20:00 by Dmitry



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 Posted: Sun Aug 30th, 2020 20:12

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Yes. Peels are where the highest concentrations of CGA are found. I wonder what benefit the CGA in the skin gives the plants?

I had not thought about CGA breaking down during storage of a fruit or vegetable before. Thank you Dmitry.



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 Posted: Sun Aug 30th, 2020 20:49

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Joyful wrote:
I wonder what benefit the CGA in the skin gives the plants?


Joyful, I think its mainly an anti pathogen effect - phenolic acids are synthesized by plants as a protection against bacteria, viruses, fungi and even insects... but probably of zero to low help against chronic(in cells) human microbiome(while always preserving anti inflammatory properties).

Here is a data on the total polyphenol content in some plant foods:

https://www.intechopen.com/books/oxidative-stress-and-chronic-degenerative-diseases-a-role-for-antioxidants/food-phenolic-compounds-main-classes-sources-and-their-antioxidant-power

Last edited on Sun Aug 30th, 2020 22:20 by Dmitry



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 Posted: Mon Aug 31st, 2020 11:49

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Dmitry wrote:
Coffee also contains so called diterpenes(cafestol and kahweol):


yes i know i have like 6 physical books and 5 electronic books on caffeine and caffeine containing plants :) ... sort of a hobby...

The interesting thing about drinking coffee is that it blocks positive feelings from smoking tobacco, i think it is opioide antagonist found in it. When i drink tea no problem, cigarettes feel pleasurably, but with coffee-- the only think u feel is bad taste of smoke :)



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 Posted: Mon Aug 31st, 2020 13:20

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Here, polyphenols are compared with dexamethasone:

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/ra/c7ra13569f
Western blot results showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of polyphenols from I. latifolia might be exerted through inhibiting the activation of MAPKs (ERK and JNK) and NF-κB to decrease NO, COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Thus, the polyphenol enriched extracts from I. latifolia are a good source of natural antioxidants with a beneficial effect against inflammation, and they may be applied as a food supplement and/or functional ingredient.
...
Interestingly, NO release inhibition rate of polyphenols at the concentration of 300 μg mL−1 was found to exceed that of dexamethasone at the concentration of 50 μg mL−1:



Effect of polyphenols on NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. DXM = dexamethasone


Effect of polyphenols from I. latifolia on LPS-induced TNF-α (A), IL-1β (B) and IL-6 (C) levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages by ELISA.

and some more:

Evaluation of the effect of polyphenol of escin compared with ibuprofen and dexamethasone in synoviocyte model for osteoarthritis: an in vitro study
http://eprints.iums.ac.ir/5985/
Escin can quench the gene expression of COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α in synoviocyte cells and production of NO and PGE2 in monocyte/macrophage cells alike DEX and IBP. We can use from escin for the treatment of osteoarthritis as an anti-inflammatory agent in the latter but further studies to support the results from such a model are needed.
___

Interestingly, there is not much difference in herx between consuming low to high mgs of polyphenols in a diet(receptors are already saturated with relatively small amounts of them?), but there is a huge difference between consuming no polyphenols and at least some polyphenols.

Last edited on Mon Aug 31st, 2020 13:28 by Dmitry



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 Posted: Mon Aug 31st, 2020 13:50

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wrotek wrote:
Dmitry wrote:
Coffee also contains so called diterpenes(cafestol and kahweol):


yes i know i have like 6 physical books and 5 electronic books on caffeine and caffeine containing plants :) ... sort of a hobby...


Diterpenes are called polyphenols too ;-)



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 Posted: Fri Sep 4th, 2020 17:42

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Adenosine Augments IL-10 Production by Macrophages through an A2B Receptor-Mediated Posttranscriptional Mechanism
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2000336/
Interleukin-10 is an important immunomodulatory cytokine which has attracted much attention because of its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. IL-10 was initially described as a Th2 product that restrained the secretion of cytokines by Th1 T cell clones (1). Subsequently, it has become clear that IL-10 is also produce by cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage (2) and monocytes/macrophages appear to be the predominant cell type secreting IL-10 following LPS administration in vivo (3). Macrophages exposed to LPS secrete IL-10 with a later onset when compared with proinflammatory cytokines. This belated production of IL-10 represents an essential autoregulatory mechanism that limits excessive production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-12 (4), thereby contributing to both the limitation and resolution of inflammation (5).

Role of IL-10 for induction of anemia during inflammation
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12165551/
Patients receiving higher doses of IL-10 developed anemia and presented with a dose-dependent increase of ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels, an indicator of iron restriction to erythroid progenitor cells. According to our in vitro data, hyperferritinemia may result from direct stimulation of ferritin translation by IL-10 in activated monocytic cells, most likely by cytokine-mediated reduction of the binding affinity of translational repressors, iron-regulatory proteins, to the 5'-untranslated region of ferritin mRNA. In patients, all observed changes were most pronounced at the end of therapy (day +29), and thereafter hemoglobin levels and serum iron parameters returned to baseline levels within 4 wk of follow-up. Our data demonstrate that IL-10 causes anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease which may be referred to the induction of imbalances in iron homeostasis by the cytokine, leading to hyperferritinemia and limited iron availability to erythroid progenitor cells, a condition typically seen in the anemia of chronic inflammation.



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