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Capnine - biofilm bacteria's dirty little secret
 Moderated by: Prof Trevor Marshall Page:  First Page Previous Page  ...  2  3  4  5  6  7   
 

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wrotek
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 Posted: Sat Jun 18th, 2011 05:55

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Can bacteria create biofilm inside white blood cells and use it to disable nuclear receptors ?



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Lyme reflux chronic pain fatigue depression 125D36 Ph1Sep05 Ph2Oct06 Ph3Apr07 in low lux NoIRs 25D<7 Oct06
Dr. Greg Blaney
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 Posted: Sat Jun 18th, 2011 08:30

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Intracellular bacteria certainly can. Whether they exist as a biofilm or not, I am unsure.



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59 year old male, started MP Dec 2004. Remaining symptoms are mild periodic tinnitus & dry skin. On Benicar 40 mg tid and azithromycin 125 mg q10d. Completed all phases including using Bactrim.
wrotek
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 Posted: Sat Jun 18th, 2011 09:37

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Yes, I am especially interested in the biofilm inside cells, I wonder if the biofilm structure can grow so big that it will disrupt cell machinery - organella, or perhaps even nuclear receptors immobilizing them, somehow.

Last edited on Sat Jun 18th, 2011 09:38 by wrotek



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Phillyguy
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 Posted: Sat Jun 18th, 2011 12:04

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The biofilm-like masses called intracellular bacterial communities are in 'Yellow' in this image.

http://iai.asm.org/content/vol78/issue3/images/large/zii9990985010006.jpeg

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). A murine UTI model has revealed an infection cascade whereby UPEC undergoes cycles of invasion of the bladder epithelium, intracellular proliferation in polysaccharide-containing biofilm-like masses called intracellular bacterial communities (IBC), and then dispersal into the bladder lumen to initiate further rounds of epithelial colonization and invasion. We predicted that the UPEC K1 polysaccharide capsule is a key constituent of the IBC matrix. Compared to prototypic E. coli K1 strain UTI89, a capsule assembly mutant had a fitness defect in functionally TLR4+ and TLR4 mice, suggesting a protective role of capsule in inflamed and noninflamed hosts. K1 capsule assembly and synthesis mutants had dramatically reduced IBC formation, demonstrating the common requirement for K1 polysaccharide in IBC development. The capsule assembly mutant appeared dispersed in the cytoplasm of the bladder epithelial cells and failed to undergo high-density intracellular replication during later stages of infection, when the wild-type strain continued to form serial generations of IBC. Deletion of the sialic acid regulator gene nanR partially restored IBC formation in the capsule assembly mutant. These data suggest that capsule is necessary for efficient IBC formation and that aberrant sialic acid accumulation, resulting from disruption of K1 capsule assembly, produces a NanR-mediated defect in intracellular proliferation and IBC development. Together, these data demonstrate the complex but important roles of UPEC polysaccharide encapsulation and sialic acid signaling in multiple stages of UTI pathogenesis.


Full Text Here:  http://iai.asm.org/cgi/content/full/78/3/963

Last edited on Sat Jun 18th, 2011 12:53 by Phillyguy

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 Posted: Sat Jun 18th, 2011 12:52

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Widespread occurrence of an intranuclear bacterial parasite in vent and seep bathymodiolin mussels

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01847.x/full

SummaryMany parasitic bacteria live in the cytoplasm of multicellular animals, but only a few are known to regularly invade their nuclei. In this study, we describe the novel bacterial parasite “Candidatus Endonucleobacter bathymodioli” that invades the nuclei of deep-sea bathymodiolin mussels from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Bathymodiolin mussels are well known for their symbiotic associations with sulfur- and methane-oxidizing bacteria. In contrast, the parasitic bacteria of vent and seep animals have received little attention despite their potential importance for deep-sea ecosystems. We first discovered the intranuclear parasite “Ca. E. bathymodioli” in Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis from the Logatchev hydrothermal vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Using primers and probes specific to “Ca. E. bathymodioli” we found this intranuclear parasite in at least six other bathymodiolin species from vents and seeps around the world. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy analyses of the developmental cycle of “Ca. E. bathymodioli” showed that the infection of a nucleus begins with a single rod-shaped bacterium which grows to an unseptated filament of up to 20 μm length and then divides repeatedly until the nucleus is filled with up to 80 000 bacteria. The greatly swollen nucleus destroys its host cell and the bacteria are released after the nuclear membrane bursts. Intriguingly, the only nuclei that were never infected by “Ca. E. bathymodioli” were those of the gill bacteriocytes. These cells contain the symbiotic sulfur- and methane-oxidizing bacteria, suggesting that the mussel symbionts can protect their host nuclei against the parasite. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the “Ca. E. bathymodioli” belongs to a monophyletic clade of Gammaproteobacteria associated with marine metazoans as diverse as sponges, corals, bivalves, gastropods, echinoderms, ascidians and fish. We hypothesize that many of the sequences from this clade originated from intranuclear bacteria, and that these are widespread in marine invertebrates.

Last edited on Sat Jun 18th, 2011 12:54 by Phillyguy

wrotek
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 Posted: Fri Mar 1st, 2013 07:55

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from
Physiology and evolution of spirochetes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC413998/

Possible Relationship with Gliding Bacteria Some recent reports suggest that the phylo-genetic relationship between spirochetes and gliding bacteria may be closer than previously believed. Greenberg and Canale-Parola (67) de-termined the molecular structure of the major carotenoid pigments of the facultative anaer-obes S. aurantia and spirochete RS1 (Fig. 4), the only known pigmented spirochetes. Except for their presence in the spirochetes, and in an unidentified microorganism (4), these carote-noids have been detected only in gliding bacte-ria (see section, Carotenoid pigments). Another characteristic common to the facul-tatively anaerobic spirochetes and gliding bac-teria is that their growth is strongly inhibited by actinomycin D (49, 67). Since gliders and spirochetes are both gram negative, this is an unusual response, inasmuch as gram-negative bacteria generally are not appreciably in-hibited by actinomycin D (49). Possibly, the sensitivity of gliding bacteria and spirochetes to this antibiotic reflects similarities in cell surface composition or in specific physiological processes. Studies of motility mechanisms may reveal additional similarities between spirochetes and gliding bacteria. As previously mentioned, spi-rochetes not only swim free-floating in liquids, but also "creep" or "crawl" on solid surfaces (23, 45). The mechanism responsible for the latter type of movement may prove to be identical or similar to that which propels gliding bacteria.


Carotenoid Pigments S. aurantia and spirochete RS1, the only known free-living, facultatively anaerobic spi-rochetes, produce carotenoid pigments (27, 67). Aerobically grown colonies of S. aurantia are yellow-orange, whereas those of spirochete RS1 are red. Anaerobically grown colonies are white. The molecular structure of the major pig-ments of spirochete RS1 and S. aurantia strain J1 was determined by analytical procedures in-volving mass spectrometry, infrared spectros-copy, chromatographic analysis, hydride reduc-tion, and acetylation and silylation experi-ments (67). It was found that the major pigment of spirochete RS1 was 4-keto-1',2'-dihydro-1'-hydroxytorulene, also called deoxyflexixanthin (Fig. 4). This pigment accounted for at least 90% of the total pigment content of spirochete RS1. The major pigment from S. aurantia was 1',2'-dihydro-1'-hydroxytorulene (Fig. 4), dif-fering from deoxyflexixanthin only in a substi-tution in the cyclohexene ring. Chromato-graphic and spectrophotometric evidence indi-cated that 1',2'-dihydro-1'-hydroxytorulene was also present, as a minor carotenoid compo-nent, in spirochete RS1. The two major carotenoid pigments from S. aurantia and spirochete RS1 (67) had been pre-viously detected almost exclusively in gliding bacteria, such as species ofFlexibacter (2), Stig-matella (112), and Myxococcus (142). The possi-ble evolutionary significance of the occurrence of these pigments in both spirochetes and glid-ing bacteria is discussed in a subsequent sec-tion of this review. Saproxanthin, a carotenoid pigment remarkably similar in chemical struc-ture (Fig. 4) to the identified pigments of spiro-chete RS1 and S. aurantia, is the major carote-noid of Saprospira grandis (1). It is noteworthy that S. grandis is a gliding bacterium previ-ously believed to be a spirochete (25, 33).
Capnine



deoxyflexixanthin (picture below)

http://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=C010907





Last edited on Fri Mar 1st, 2013 08:06 by wrotek



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Lyme reflux chronic pain fatigue depression 125D36 Ph1Sep05 Ph2Oct06 Ph3Apr07 in low lux NoIRs 25D<7 Oct06
GillyB
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 Posted: Wed Apr 10th, 2013 13:10

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Salmonella and its biofilm

http://www.vtnews.vt.edu/articles/2013/04/041013-fralin-biofilmponder.html

In moist conditions, Salmonella thrive and reproduce abundantly. If thrust into a dry environment, they cease to reproduce, but turn on genes which produce a biofilm, protecting them from the detrimental environment.  



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MP start Jun'12, once again on an MP break | Degenerative Disc Disease, Osteoarthritis, Post-Lyme, depression/anxiety, GI. Most recent serum 25D: 6/15 -18
Carry on, and keep MP'ing
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 Posted: Wed Apr 10th, 2013 13:22

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Oh, and this:   Clinging to crevices, E. coli thrive

https://www.seas.harvard.edu/news-events/press-releases/flagella

 E. coli are equipped with two types of appendages: pili, which are short, sticky hairs, and the whip-like flagella, which are often twice as long as the bacterium itself. Pili had previously been recognized as playing a critical role in the formation of biofilms. These short hairs, up to only a micron in length in E. coli, can stick to surfaces temporarily, while the bacteria secrete a thick slime that holds them permanently in place.


Flagella, on the other hand, typically play a propulsive role, helping bacteria to swim and steer in liquid environments. As it turns out, though, when it’s time to settle in one place, flagella also contribute to adhesion on rough surfaces, where the pili would have access to fewer attachment points.



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MP start Jun'12, once again on an MP break | Degenerative Disc Disease, Osteoarthritis, Post-Lyme, depression/anxiety, GI. Most recent serum 25D: 6/15 -18
Carry on, and keep MP'ing

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